Who was Yahshuah Really Sent to?

January 8, 2023

According to Matthew 15:24, Jesus Christ (Yahshuah) told the Canaanite (Syro-Phoenician) woman that, “I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

What does the word “lost” mean? Who are the“sheep”? Who is “the House of Israel”? and Who are the “lost sheep of the house of Israel?”

But, before we define those terms, let’s look at the following translations of Matthew 15:24 for clarity and consideration:

Translations:

English

The English Hexapla[1] states Matthew 15:24 in the following English translations:

Wyclif states, “He answered & seide, I am not sente but to the scheep of the hous of Israel that perischiden,”

Tyndale states, “He answered, and sayde: I am not sent, but vnto the loost shepe of the house of Israel.”

Cranmer states, “But he answered, & sayde: I am not sent but vnto the lost shepe of the house of Israel.”

The Geneva states, “But he answered, and sayed, I am not sent but vnto the lost shepe of the house of Israel.”

Rheims states, “And he ansvvering said: I vvas not sent but to the sheepe that are lost of the house of Israel.

The Authorised states, “But he answered, and said, I am not sent, but vnto the lost sheepe of the house of Israel.”

Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible states, “And He answering said, I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[2]

The Douay-Rheims Translation states, “And He answering, said: I was not sent but to the sheep, that are lost of the house of Israel.”[3]

Ferrar Fenton’s Translation of the New Testament states, “In reply, however, he said, “I was not sent to other than the lost sheep of Israel’s house.[4]

The Emphasized Bible states, “But [he] answering, said, I was not sent forth, save unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[5]

The Interlinear Bible states, “But answering He said, I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[6]

The New American Standard Bible states, “But He answered and said, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[7]

The Eastern Greek Orthodox New Testament states, “However, Jesus answered, “I was not sent to anyone but the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[8]

The Hendrickson Parallel Bible[9] states Matthew 15:24 in the following English translations:

The King James Bible states, “But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

The New King James Bible states, “But He answered and said, “I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

The New International Version states, “He answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel.”

The New Living Translation states, “Then he said to the woman, “I was sent only to help the people of Israel – God’s lost sheep – not the Gentiles.”

The New Revised Standard Version states, “He answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[10]

Ivan Panin’s translation of the New Testament states, “But he answered and said, “I was not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[11]

The Aramaic English New Testament states, “But he answered and said to them, “Have I not been sent except to the sheep, which went astray from the house of Israel?”[12]

The Apostolic Bible Polyglot states, “And responding he said, I was not sent except unto the [sheep lost] of the house of Israel.”[13]

The International Standard Version 2.0 states, “But he replied, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the nation of Israel.”[14]

The New World Translation states, “He answered: “I was not sent to anyone except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[15]

The Cepher states, “But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Yisra’el.”[16]

The Berean Study Bible states, “He answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”[17]

The Complete Jewish Study Bible states, “He said, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Isra’el.”[18]

The Pure Word states, “He Answered and then Spoke, I am definitely not Sent Out, except to the lost sheep of the House of Israel.”

Greek

The Greek word for “lost” is Strong’s Concordance #G622 (apollumi)[19] and it means:

1. To destroy

a. To put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to ruin

b. To render useless

c. To declare that one must be put to death
d. Metaphorically, to devote or give over to eternal misery in hell

e. To perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed.

2. To destroy

a. To lose

Apollumi is made up of two other Greek words: Strong’s Concordance #G575 (apo),[20] which means, “to put away,” and Strong’s Concordance #G3639 (ollumi)[21], which means, “in punishment, chastisement, destruction, or death.”

For the sake of context, I have used the following verses from George V. Wigram’s The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the New Testament[22]:

Matthew 10:6 states, “But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

Matthew 15:24 states, “But He answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

Matthew 18:11 states, “For the Son of Man is come to save that which was lost.”

Luke 15:4 states, “What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?”

Luke 15:6 states, “And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost.”

Luke 15:8-9 states, “Either what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she find it? And when she hath found it , she calleth he friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I had lost.”

Luke 15:24 states, “For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.”

Luke 15:32 states, “It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.”

Luke 19:10 states, “For the Son of man is come to seek and save that which was lost.”

The other Greek word for “lost” is Strong’s Concordance #G3471 (moraino),[23] which means, “to become insipid, to lose savour.”

For the sake of context, I have used the following verses from George V. Wigram’s The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the New Testament:[24]

Matthew 5:13 states, “Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.”

Luke 14:34 states, “Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned?”

English vs Greek

As one can see, there is a big difference between the Greek definitions for the English word, lost. Jesus Christ, Himself, chose to use the Greek word, apollumi, to describe the lost sheep of the House of Israel, not the Greek word, moraino. Any person who has studied Greek knows that Jesus Christ meant that He came not but unto the “put away in punishment sheep of the House of Israel.” That phrase reveals a physical national salvation issue; not a spiritualized personal salvation issue. So, the English word “lost” when referenced with the House of Israel, never means “the spiritually unsaved” in the way Babylonian “churchianity” uses it today. You will note that Wycliffe set the tone by actually using the word “perished” in his translation of Matthew 15:24, and then from that point, the rest of the translators used the word “lost,” never thinking that that word would be “spiritualized” at some point in the future!

Remember historically, it is the northern kingdom of Israel that is referred to as lost. Between the years 741-676 B.C., the kingdom of Israel came to an ignominious end. Samaria, the capital city, fell to the Assyrians; almost the entire population of the northern kingdom was removed from their own land, and the Bible leaves them captive in Assyria and Media, where, apparently, they seemed to vanish into complete oblivion. The Bible not only records these national disasters, but also gives the reasons for this catastrophe. Israel had failed to keep the Commandments of God and therefore invoked the penalty of losing occupation in their land.” These accounts can be found in II Kings 15:19-20, 29; 17:3-6; 18:13; and I Chronicles 5:26.

According to Rev. William Pascoe Goard in his The Post-Captivity Names of Israel, prior to the captivity,
Israel was a Divinely-given spiritual name. Isaac was the Divinely-given family name. Omri was the Dynastic or national name…This name originated in King Omri, who was the lawmaker who displaced Moses; who substituted the “Statutes of Omri” for “the commandments, statutes, and judgments of the Lord” in Israel…Whatever other names Israel bore in the days of her residence in Palestine, such as Ephraim, etc., she bore out into captivity these two names: Isaac, or Saka; and Omri. By what names was Israel known after being carried into captivity?…Israel was called: Saka, Scythia, Scythian,” etc., or the House of Isaac. “Beth Omri,” “Bit Kumri,” or the House of Omri. These are two of the names which Israel bore when she was carried into captivity. There are many forms of spelling the same names. Among the many variations of this name Beth Omri we find Bit Kumri, Kimmerians, Cimmerians, Gimmiri, etc. The name Isaac has also a score or more of variations, such as Sakai, Sacae, Sakasuna, etc. The Sakai are also called Kimmerians, Cimmerians, Gimmirians, etc. But the Sakai, otherwise called Kimmerians, are also called Scythians. This fact is established by those inscriptions which are best known, and which have furnished the key to Assyriology.[25]

According to W.H. Bennett, “We have our Lord’s own command to His disciples: “Go not into the way of the Gentiles [i.e., the nations] and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And as ye go, preach, saying, the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (Matt. 10:5-7).

W.H. Bennet continues:

The lost sheep of the house of Israel are the ten tribes that were conquered and carried away into captivity by the Assyrians in the Eighth Century B.C. These tribes never returned to Palestine, for they were still lost and dispersed even in Christ’s day. They were still in existence, as proved by Our Lord’s words, for why would He send His disciples to a people who no longer existed? By commanding the disciples to proclaim the Gospel of the Kingdom to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. He indicated that it is in the and through Israel that God would be primarily working in this age. It is clear that the descendants of the house of Israel must still be fulfilling that purpose in our own day.[26]
Flavius Josephus is quoted as saying, “…there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates ‘til now and are an immense multitude and not to be estimated by numbers.” (Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, Chapter V, Section 2).
According to the May 2, 1890 edition of the Jewish Chronicle:
…Why should they (The House of Israel) have been less tenacious of life than their brethren of Judah? The Scriptures speak of a future restoration of Israel, which is clearly to include both Judah and Ephraim. The problem, then, is reduced to the simplest form. The Ten Tribes are certainly in existence. All that has to be done is to discover which people represent them.[27]
Dr. Hertz, the late Chief Rabbi of the British Empire wrote as follows on November 18 1918:
The people known at present as Jews are descendants of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin with a certain number of descendants of the tribe of Levi. As far as is known there is no further admixture of other tribes. The ten tribes have been absorbed among the nations of the world. We look forward to the gathering of all the tribes at some future day.[28]
F.W.C. Neser states:
The Prophecies of the Bible will never be interpreted correctly for as long as there is no distinction made between the House of Israel (Ten Tribes) and the House of Judah (Two Tribes). The Bible shall in a great measure remain a closed Book, as far as God’s Plan with the world is concerned, while all the teachings and prophecies concerning Israel, are applied only to the Jew as he is today.[29]
According to I Kings 11:29-39, it was the northern kingdom of Israel that was nationally separated from the southern kingdom of Judah:
I Kings 11:29-39: This is the passage wherein Ahijah the prophet meets Jeroboam on the way to Jerusalem, takes his new garment and rends it into twelve pieces. Ahijah states that The LORD God will rend ten tribes from Solomon for his apostasy into idolatry. As a result, Ahijah has Jeroboam take ten pieces of the cloth to represent the ten tribes which The LORD God has given him. The other two tribes will be preserved for King David’s sake and be kept for The House of Judah. Therefore, the ten tribes will become the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam, and the two tribes will become the Southern Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam.
The following narrative from Genesis 48, wherein Jacob blesses the sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, indicates that the lost tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel may be found in the future:
And now thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. And thy issue, which out begettest after them, shall be thine, and shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance (vv. 5-6)…And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near unto him. And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the firstborn. And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my Fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my Fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth. And when Joseph saw that his Father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his Father’s hand, to remove it from Ephraim’s head unto Manasseh’s head. And Joseph said unto his Father, not so, my Father: for this is the first-born; put thy right hand upon his head. And his Father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations. And he blessed them that day, saying, In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh: and he set Ephraim before Manasseh (vv. 13-20).
According to J. Bell’s British-Israel Bible Notes for this passage:
Jacob blesses the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh (Ephraim first): “as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine.” 13, 14: He blessed them under the sign of the cross with blessings to be fulfilled in the Christian dispensation; “guiding his hands wittingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn. 15: And he blessed Joseph, and said, God…the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, 16: The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name [Israel] be named upon them, and the name of my Fathers Abraham and Isaac [Saxon]; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.” According to Jacob, there was to be in the Christian dispensation a separate and great independent nation of the stock of Israel. (The multitudinous seed is to come through Joseph). 17-19: Joseph said, “This is the first-born; put thy right hand on his head. And his Father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it; he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations. 20-22: And Israel said unto Joseph, “Moreover I have given to thee one portion above thy brethren.[30]
According to Isaiah and Jeremiah, these “lost tribes of Israel” would occupy “Isles” afar off at some time in the future:
Isaiah 41:1: Keep silence before me, O islands; and let the people renew their strength: let them come near; then let them speak: let us come near together to judgment.”
Isaiah 49:1-3: “Listen, O isles, unto Me; and hearken, ye people, from far; The LORD hath called me from the womb; from the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name. And He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of His hand hath He hid me, and made me a polished shaft; in His quiver hath He hid me; And said unto me, Thou art My servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.”
Jeremiah 51:5: “My righteousness is near; My salvation is gone forth, and mine arms shall judge the people; the isles shall wait upon Me, and on Mine Arm shall they trust.”
Jeremiah 31:7-11: “For thus saith the LORD; Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations: publish ye, praise ye, and say, O LORD, save thy people, the remnant of Israel. Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the coasts of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her that travaileth with child together: a great company shall return thither. They shall come with weeping, and with supplications will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble: for I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn. Hear the word of the LORD, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. For the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, and ransomed him from the hand of him that was stronger than he.”
According to Amos 9:8-9, these “lost tribes of Israel” might be regarded as the “Gentiles” of the Bible:
Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the LORD. For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.”

Hebrew vs English vs Greek

The word “nations” has been translated many, different ways from the Hebrew and the Greek into the English in the King James Version. For example:
Hebrew to English Translation: Translation Frequency
nation(s) 373 Times
Strong’s #H1471[31] heathen 142 Times

GOY/GOYIM: Gentiles 30 Times

557 Times people 11 Times
another 1 Time
non-Jew 0 Times
Greek to English Translation: Translation Frequency

Gentile(s) 93 Times

Strong’s #G1484[32] nation(s) 64 Times

ETHNOS: heathen 5 Times

164 Times peoples 2 Times

non-Jew 0 Times

Strong’s #G1672[33]

HELLEN: Greek(s) 20 Times

27 Times Gentile(s) 7 Times
The Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament defines ethnos (#G1484) as follows: “(1) a multitude associated or living together; (2) a multitude of individuals of the same nature or genus; (3) race, nation.”[34]
According to Ben Williams in his Kingdom Bible Studies:
Webster’s New World Dictionary, under the word “Gentile,” shows that the Latin root word gentilis means, “of the same gens, clan, or race. The same dictionary states the following under the words gens and genus: This is also the basis for the word ‘genesis’ which means ‘the coming into being of something; an origin. Gens: “originally, that belonging together by birth or descent.” Genus: “birth, origin, race, species, kind, class.”[35]
The English word Gentile originates, not from Hebrew or Greek (i.e. not from the Bible text), but from the Roman Latin word gentilis. There is a close similarity between the Latin word gentilis and the Greek word ethnos. Both words refer to a group or groups of people. That could be a family, a group of related families, a tribe or an entire nation. Note the meanings of the words gens and genus are also the basis for “Genesis” meaning “a common beginning.[36]
The words ethnos and gentilis themselves denote no one particular, group of people. They can refer to any group or groups in general. The context in which these words are used indicate which particular group.[37]
The original meaning of the English word Gentile, or its Latin root gentilis, are approximately the same. In this respect, the Old English word Gentile would have been comparable with the Greek word ethnos or the Hebrew word goy. In any case, the KJV translators, back in the 1600s, translated these words very inconsistently.[38]
When one considers the modern concept of the word Gentile, it becomes obvious that a definite change has taken place in dictionary definitions. To say that Gentile means “non-Jew” (which is the predominant usage today) violates the original meaning and intent of the word and its root. There is absolutely no honest way to apply this modern usage of “non-Jew” to the Greek word ethnos or the Hebrew word goy. Doing so has caused a great amount of confusion and misunderstanding.[39]
Also, the modern definition of the word Gentile has changed, and it has changed people’s concept of God, race, and theology. It has corrupted their understanding of history and Scripture. Churchgoers today are taught error and deception. They’ve been taught that the people of the world are divided into two exclusive racial categories: (1) Jews and (2) Gentiles. There is not one shred of evidence in the Holy Bible to support that myth. It is a lie: a false teaching by which churches have confused English-speaking Christians for centuries. If you’ve been taught that you are a “Gentile” and therefore a “non-Hebrew,” you too have been deceived. Strangely enough, most real Christians are racial Hebrews and Israelites. But most so-called “Jews” are neither Hebrews, Semites, nor Israelites.[40]
There were people who knew that there were Israelites at the time of Christ who were outside of Palestine:
John 7:32-35 states:
The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning Him; and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take Him. Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto Him that sent Me. Ye shall seek Me, and shall not find Me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come. Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will He go, that we shall not find Him? Will He go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?”
The Greek word for dispersed is Strong’s Concordance #G1290, diaspora, which means, “a scattering, dispersion of Israelites among foreign nations.”[41] The Greek word for Gentiles is Strong’s Concordance #G1672 Hellen, which means:
A Greek either by nationality, whether a native of the main land or of the Greek islands or colonies; in a wider sense the name embraces all nations not Jews that made the language, customs, and learning of the Greeks their own; the primary reference is to a difference of religion and worship.[42]
It is quite obvious from the Text, that the Pharisees knew where the Dispersed Ten Tribes of Israel had gone and had verbally expressed their concerns with regard to that effect, when they questioned if Jesus was actually going to go unto the Dispersed among the Greeks.

References

[1]. The English Hexapla Exhibiting the Six Important English Translations of the New Testament Scriptures: Wycliffe (1380); Tyndale (1535); Cranmer (1539); Genevan (1557); Angl-Rhemish (1582); And Authorized (1611). (London, England: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1841).
[2]. Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible (Edinburgh, Scotland: PDF, 1898).
[3]. The Douay-Rheims Translation of the Bible (n.p.: PDF, 1899).
[4]. The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ Translated Into Modern English from the Greek Text of Westcott & Hort by Ferrar Fenton (Merrimac, MA: Destiny Publishers, 1905), 1066.
[5]. The Emphasized Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1959), NT16.
[6]. The Interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek and English (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1986), 751.
[7]. The New American Standard Bible (Anaheim, CA: Foundation Publications, 1996), NT26.
[8]. The Eastern Greek Orthodox New Testament (n.p.: PDF, n.d.).
[9]. The Hendrickson Parallel Bible: King James Version; New King James Version; New International Version; And New Living Translation (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005).
[10]. The New Revised Standard Version (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), NT18.
[11]. The New Testament from the Greek Text as Established by Bible Numerics Originally Translated by Ivan Panin (Houston, TX: Unleavened Bread Publishing, 2011), 25.
[12]. The Aramaic English New Testament (Sedro-Woolley, WA: Netzari Press, LLC, 2012), 44.
[13]. The Apostolic Polyglot Bible (Newport, OR: Apostolic Press, 2013), NT25.
[14]. The Holy Bible: International Standard Version 2.0 (Toluca Lake, CA: Davidson Press, 2013), 2550.
[15]. The New World Bible Translation (Wallkill, NY: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, 2013), 1326.
[16]. The Cepher (Eureka, MT: Cepher Publishing Group, LLC, 2014), 1244.
[17]. The Berean Study Bible (Pittsburgh, PA: Bible Hub, 2016), 28.
[18]. The Complete Jewish Study Bible (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers Marketing, LLC, 2016), 1414.
[19]. Strong, The New Strong’s Exhaustive.
[20]. Ibid, G10.
[21]. Ibid, G62.
[22]. George V. Wigram, The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the New Testament (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2017), 74.
[23]. Strong, G59.
[24]. George V. Wigram, The Englishman’s Greek Concordance of the New Testament (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2017), 512.
[25]. William Pascoe Goard, The Post-Captivity Names of Israel (Muskogee, OK: Artisan Publishers, 1989), 10–12.
[26]. W.H. Bennett, The Story of Celto-Saxon Israel (United Kingdom: Covenant Publishing Company, 2002), 53.
[27]. F.W.C. Neser, The “Lost” Ten Tribes of Israel (St. John’s: Brawtley Press, 1985), 12.
[28]. Neser, The “Lost” Ten Tribes, 12.
[29]. Ibid, 13.
[30]. J. Bell, British-Israel Bible Notes (London, England: R. Banks & Son, 1903), 19.
[31]. Strong, The New Strong’s Exhaustive, H26.
[32]. Ibid, G26.
[33]. Ibid, G29.
[34]. Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers Marketing, LLC, 2017), 168.
[35]. Ben Williams, Kingdom Bible Studies (Grangeville, ID: American Christian Ministries, n.d.), 19.
[36]. Williams, Kingdom Bible Studies, 19.
[37]. Ibid.
[38]. Ibid.
[39]. Ibid.
[40]. Ibid.
[41]. Strong, The New Strong’s Exhaustive, G23.
[42]. Ibid.

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